Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!

Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!
Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!

We all know that eating a balanced and healthy diet is one of the most important aspects of staying healthy. This is the key to improving our overall health and well-being. Despite knowing this, many times we would not be able to include all essential nutrients in our diet and suffer from various nutritional deficiencies.  

Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin is one of such common nutritional deficiencies that affect 15-25 % of people worldwide. Animal products such as eggs and meat are the main sources of Vitamin B12. Thus, Vitamin B12 deficiency is more commonly observed in people who follow strict vegan or vegetarian diets.  

 Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including the formation of red blood cells, nerve function, and DNA synthesis. A deficiency in this vital nutrient can lead to a range of health problems, making it essential to understand its causes, symptoms, and treatment options.  Thus, in this blog post, I am sharing in-depth information about Vitamin B12 deficiency.

What are the causes, symptoms and treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency. Read on to know more.  Before diving deep into it, first let’s talk about what Vitamin B12 is and what are its important functions in the body.  

Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!

Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!
Vitamin B12 ( Cobalamin) deficiency: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment!

What is Vitamin B12? 

Vitamin B12, a water-soluble vitamin, is part of the B-complex group. It is unique among vitamins because it contains the mineral cobalt, hence the name “cobalamin.” This vitamin is essential for various biological processes, particularly those related to the nervous system, DNA synthesis, and the production of red blood cells. 

Functions of Vitamin B12 

Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in maintaining good health. It is necessary for: 

  • Red Blood Cell Formation: Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells. A deficiency can led to anemia, which can cause fatigue and weakness. 
  • Neurological Function: B12 is crucial for maintaining healthy nerve cells. Deficiency can result in neurological symptoms such as tingling sensations, numbness, and even problems with memory and cognition. 
  • DNA Synthesis: B12 is involved in the synthesis of DNA, which is essential for cell growth and replication. 

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B12 

Vitamin B12 is primarily found in animal-derived foods, such as meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs. Some plant-based sources like fortified cereals and nutritional yeast also contain B12, but they may not provide adequate amounts for everyone. Therefore, individuals following strict vegetarian or vegan diets are at a higher risk of B12 deficiency and should consider supplementation. 

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency 

Inadequate Dietary Intake 

The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is a lack of dietary intake, especially in individuals with restrictive diets. Vegetarians and vegans are at particular risk, as B12 is predominantly found in animal products. 

Malabsorption Issues 

Even if you consume enough B12, your body may struggle to absorb it effectively due to various factors. Such as: 

  • Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions like celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, and atrophic gastritis can impair the absorption of B12. 
  • Surgical Procedures: Some weight loss surgeries, such as gastric bypass surgery, can interfere with B12 absorption. 

Pernicious Anemia 

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system attacks the cells in the stomach that produce intrinsic factor, a protein necessary for B12 absorption. Without intrinsic factors, the body can’t absorb B12 effectively, leading to deficiency. 

Medications and Health Conditions 

Certain medications, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and metformin, can affect B12 absorption. Additionally, conditions like alcoholism and chronic kidney disease can contribute to B12 deficiency. 

Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency 


One of the most common signs of B12 deficiency is anemia, which can result in: 

  • Fatigue 
  • Weakness 
  • Pale or jaundiced skin 
  • Shortness of breath 
  • Heart palpitations 

Neurological Symptoms 

B12 deficiency can also affect the nervous system, leading to symptoms such as: 

  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet 
  • Balance and coordination problems 
  • Memory and cognitive issues 
  • Depression and mood changes 

Other Possible Symptoms 

In severe cases or with prolonged deficiency, you may experience: 

  • Glossitis (inflamed, swollen tongue) 
  • Mouth ulcers 
  • Visual disturbances 
  • Heart problems 
  • Nerve damage 

It’s crucial to note that symptoms can vary from person to person and may not always be severe or immediate. 

Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency 

Evaluation of Symptoms 

Your doctor will consider your symptoms and medical history when diagnosing a vitamin B12 deficiency. With this deficiency , some symptoms, like neurological issues, may occur before anemia is evident. 

Blood Tests 

A simple blood test can measure the level of B12 in your blood. Other related blood tests may be conducted to assess factors like hematocrit and MCV (mean corpuscular volume). 

Identifying Underlying Causes 

Determining the cause of the deficiency is essential for effective treatment. This may involve additional tests, such as checking for intrinsic factor antibodies or evaluating gastrointestinal function. 

Treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency  

Dietary Changes 

For those with mild deficiencies due to inadequate dietary intake, dietary changes may be sufficient. Including more B12-rich foods in your diet, such as meat, fish, dairy, and eggs, can help raise your B12 levels. 

Vitamin B12 Supplements 

Supplements are commonly used to treat and prevent B12 deficiency. They come in various forms, including oral tablets, sublingual (under the tongue) tablets, and nasal sprays. Supplements are usually effective for most people. 

Intramuscular Injections 

In cases of severe deficiency or malabsorption issues, your doctor may recommend B12 injections. These are typically administered to the muscle and provide a direct source of vitamins. 

Treating Underlying Causes 

When the deficiency is due to an underlying health condition, addressing that condition is crucial. This may involve treating gastrointestinal disorders, managing autoimmune conditions, or adjusting medications. 

Prevention of Vitamin B12 Deficiency 

A Balanced Diet 

The most effective way to prevent B12 deficiency is to maintain a balanced diet that includes B12-rich foods. If you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, consider fortified foods or supplements. 


For individuals at higher risk of deficiency, such as the elderly or those with gastrointestinal disorders, regular B12 supplementation may be necessary as a preventive measure. 

Regular Health Check-ups 

Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider can help detect deficiencies and underlying conditions early, allowing for prompt treatment. 


Vitamin B12 deficiency is a serious health concern with a range of causes and potential symptoms that can significantly impact one’s quality of life. Awareness of the risk factors, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing this condition effectively.  

If you are suffering from any of these symptoms and suspect that it could be due to Vitamin B12 deficiency, then do not delay in booking a professional medical consultation and take required treatment, if it is caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency.  

Have you heard about Vitamin B12 deficiency before? What are your thoughts? Please share with me.  

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  • Alpana Deo

    Recently, I have herd from a friend that she has B12 deficiency. And she came to know about it from her annual well check. She has been feeling tired for quite sometime and now she knows the reason. So the point that you have mentioned that knowing the root cause and getting blood work done is very important. Sometimes our diet is not able to provide us all the nutrients in required amount. But knowing about any kind of deficiency and then taking measures is very important. Your post has explained ell the aspects.

  • Samata

    Thanks for enlightening me with the importance, symptoms of deficiency and ways of overcoming the deficiency in such easy and simple way. I was aware that Vitamin B12 is important for our body but had no detailed idea. Thanks again for this informative post.

  • Star Diaries

    B12 deficiency is a challenge, especially for vegetarians, as the main source of this vitamin is from animal derived foods. Hence it is neccessary for them to depend on supplements. Sandy N Vyjay

  • Ruchie

    It is so much common now a days having Vitamin B12 deficiency, but if we get to know early we can start a supplement which can help. Thanks a lot for sharing all details.

  • freemindtree

    My friend who herself is a doctor was recently diagnosed with Vitamin B12 deficiency. She was feeling tired from few days so she decided to get this checked. Immediately she took Vitamin B12 shots as it has better and faster efficacy. Informative post.

  • Varsh

    We often ignore feeling of tiredness as laziness or ‘needing a break’ but it can be a sign of B12 deficiency. Vegetarians, especially, must consult with a doctor and get proper supplements when needed.

  • Blogaberry Foo

    Oh my goodness. This B12 has been doing the rounds among my friends for a while now. I have to send this to them. Thanks for the research on it. It really helps people take care of themselves.

  • Rahul Prabhakar

    I experienced a significant challenge when I was diagnosed with a vitamin B12 deficiency. This deficiency left me feeling fatigued, mentally foggy, and overall unwell. However, with the guidance of a healthcare professional, I embarked on a journey to overcome this issue. Through dietary changes and B12 supplements, I was able to gradually restore my B12 levels to normal. It was a process that required patience and persistence, but eventually, I regained my energy, mental clarity, and overall well-being. This experience taught me the importance of regular health check-ups and the impact of nutrition on our vitality, reaffirming the value of taking proactive steps to prioritize our health.

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