I am super excited to share my second post for #MyFreindAlexa. My theme for #MyfriendAlexa is Diabetes awareness. And in this post, I am sharing an overview of the “Diabetes- the Silent Killer”. What is diabetes? What is the pathology of diabetes? What are the types of diabetes? What are the risk factors, sign and symptoms? Read on to know more.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic, long-lasting and a group of metabolic disorder that affects how your body turns food into the energy. According to National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney diseases , diabetes occurs when your blood sugar level remains high due to deficiency or improper functioning of insulin.
Basic pathology of Diabetes
When we eat food, it converts into glucose and provides the energy to our body. Pancreas secreted a hormone called insulin. Insulin helps in glucose get into your cells to give them energy.
Sometimes your body either does not make enough insulin or does not use insulin properly. Because of this improper functioning of insulin, glucose stays in the blood. It does not reach the cells. This raised blood sugar level leads to various sign symptoms in your body. Clinically, this condition is called diabetes.
Over the time, if this raised sugar level left untreated, it causes heart diseases, nerve damaged, eye problems and kidney diseases.
Diabetes data worldwide
There are some shocking scientific facts about this “Silent killer disease”.
- According to WHO, in 2015 an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. And WHO projects that diabetes will be the next leading cause of death in 2030.
- The global prevalence of diabetes among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% (in 1980) to 8.5% in 2014.
- Globally as estimated that 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980. And this ratio is increasing frequently.
Indeed, these facts are shocking and dreading too.
Type of diabetes
There are basically 3 types of diabetes.
- Type 1
- Type 2
- Gestational diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
It is also called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes. It is less common than type 2 diabetes. It is usually diagnosed in teens and young adults. But it can develop at any age.
With type 1 diabetes body does not make insulin. Your immune system destroyed the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
Type 2 diabetes
It is a most common type of diabetes. In this type, the body does not use insulin well and this thing results in raised glucose level. It is more commonly diagnosed in adults. It can be delayed or prevented, by paying close attention to your lifestyle factors. It includes diet and regular exercise. Also, the regular check-up is equally important to diagnose it early.
People with diagnosed type 2 diabetes need to get regularly prescribed medication to maintain the blood sugar level. Otherwise, serious health complications can occur, that may lead to death.
This is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It is caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy. And symptoms may subside after delivery of the baby.
Sometimes people have a higher blood sugar level at the borderline stage. It is called “prediabetes stage”. During this stage, it is very important to control your diet and do regular exercise.
Risk factors for diabetes
According to expert research, type 1 diabetes caused by genetic disposition, so there are no fixed risk factors that can help in preventing the onset of type 1 diabetes.
For type 2 Diabetes, there are 2 types of factors that can play an important play is in case of developing Type 2 diabetes.
- Genetic factors that include your family history and ethnicity
- Lifestyle factors that include diet, exercise, weight management etc.
There are higher chances to develop diabetes, if
- You are overweight
- A family history of diabetes mellitus or other systemic disorders is another risk factor.
- Also, if you have a personal history of gestational diabetes or other systemic disorders. Such as high blood pressure, higher cholesterol level or polycystic ovarian disease.
- You have a sedentary lifestyle with lack of enough physical activity
Sign and symptoms of diabetes
The typical symptoms of diabetes include 3P- Polyuria, Polyphagia, Polydipsia
In simple words, Increased urination, increased appetite, and increased thirst
Other predominant symptoms are:
- Extreme fatigue and weakness
- Any cut or bruises that slow to heal
- Blurry vision
- Weight loss (despite more eating)
- Numbness or tingling pain in the hands and feet
- Sometimes nail disorders (fungal infections or too brittle nails)
It is very important for high-risk patients to be tasted timely to rule out the possibility of diabetes.
Nowadays, diabetes is spreading like an epidemic especially is lower economic countries. It is really important to have enough information about its hidden sign and symptoms. It is the mandatory step that can help a lot in its early detection and prevention of complication.
Raising awareness about diabetes is a primary aim of this series.
In the next post, I will share the next important things about diabetes.
How diabetes diagnosed? What are important tests be performed to diagnose it? What are the treatment options for diabetes and what are dangerous complications? Stay tuned to get the answer to these important questions?
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Read the first part of this series herehttps://surbhiprapanna.com/2018/08/31/diabetes-awareness-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-diabetes-the-silent-killer-theme-reveal-for-myfriendalexa/